The Visible Learning mindframes provide a coherent approach to simultaneously improve learning outcomes and student wellbeing. At Clarkson, Invitational Education (IE) provides a framework for making other theories work. The most significant driver of school reform is teachers' thinking. Teachers' understanding of intentionality helps make them consciously skilled.

Clarkson Learning Journey 4 has a focus on feedback. For John Hattie and Shirley Clarke in Visible Learning Feedback (2019), feedback is a consequence of performance. It is second and it occurs after instruction. At Clarkson, the focus on feedback is to engage the hearts and minds of the school and its community to focus on the means to accelerate students’ learning outcomes.


Feedback builds upon the learning and shortens the distance between performance and the goal. High-quality feedback improves student learning and reduces the gap between higher and lower-achieving students. The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers explain that teachers both assess student learning and provide meaningful feedback to students on their learning.

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